Git Basics

What is Git ?

Version Control

Git simply records changes to a file or a group of files over time.


You can revert files back to a previous state.


You can review all the changes that has ever been made to your file

Distributed Version Control

Git has a remote repository which exists in a server somewhere.


It has a local repository which is stored in every developers computer.

Content Tracker

Git can be used to store content.


It is mostly used to store source code.

Free & Open Source

You have the freedom to share and change the software however you like.


Grab yourself a copy of git and get it installed on your system.

Create your repository

A Repository is a .git/ folder that will exist once created inside your project folder.


It is responsible for keeping track of every changes made to files in your project folder.


It is simply a history book of the files in your project folder.


Lets launch a git bash terminal and fire some code …

Step 1 : Go to your project`s folder

On Windows

$ cd /c/user/your-project-folder

On Linux

$ cd /home/user/your-project-folder

On Mac

$ cd /Users/user/your-project-folder

Step 2 : Initialize Your Repository

$ git init

Clone A Repository

You can also clone ( get a full copy of ) an existing repository if you don`t want to create a new one.


$ git clone /path-to-your-own-local-repository

Example :
$ git clone /d/my-project


$ git clone remote-repository-url

Example :

$ git clone

Save Changes

Once you have your git repository setup, you can start making changes in that repository and commit it to git.


Assuming that you have already setup a git repository …



$ cd your-project-folder


$ echo “Hello git” >> helloGit.txt


$ git add file1 file2 file3  


$ git add *  (use * to add all changed files)

Example :

$ git add helloGit.txt

Describe your changes and Commit

$ git commit -m “added new file(s) to the repo.”

Undo Changes

You can also discard all your recent, uncommitted local changes made to a file if you want.


Doing that however is not always recommended.

Discard Changes Made To A File

$ git checkout — [file-name]

Example :
$ git checkout — helloGit.txt

Undo The Most Recent Commit

$ git reset HEAD~1

Roll Back To A Previous Particular COmmit

$ git reset –hard <commit-name>

Example :

$ git reset –hard f4212332

Push & Pull Changes

If you had cloned a repository from a remote source like GitHub, you can now contribute to it with the changes that your have made in your local repository.


If you had not cloned your repository and you still want to send your changes to a particular remote repository. You first need to establish a connection to it.


Alternately, you can also bring in new changes from a remote repository to your local repository.

Establish A Connection If Had Not Cloned

$ git remote add [give-a-name] [remote-repository-url]

Example :
$ git remote add origin

You can confirm your remote connection with :

$ git remote -v

Send Your Changes

$ git push [local-branch-name] [remote-branch-name]

Example :

$ git push -u origin master

Fetch New Changes From REMOTE

$ git pull [local-branch-name] [remote-branch-name]

Example :

$ git pull origin master

Do Inspections

There are different ways to inspect changes and observe what is actually happening under the hood in your repository.


Things including logs, file history, current state of the project directory can all be seen using different git commands.


Git Status

displays the current state of the working directory and the staging area

$ git status

Git Log

displays the project history, filter and search for specific changes

$ git log

$ git log -n 3 (display last 3 commits)

$ git log –pretty=online


Branching is one of gits killer features unlike other version control tools.


Git has a default branch called the master branch.

Branches help you to experiment with new features or changes that you are currently unsure about without tampering with your original project.


You can simply merge your new features with your current project or discard them later on. Its all upto you.

Branching in Git

Create a New Branch And Switch To It

$ git checkout -b branch-name

Example :
$ git checkout -b new-test-wheels

Switching Back To Master

$ git checkout master

Merge Your New Branch With Master

$ git merge new-test-wheels (Should be done from the master branch)

Delete the Feature Branch

$ git branch -d new-test-wheels

push The Feature Branch To REmoTE REPO

$ git push origin new-test-wheels